Tokens – Trust on the XRP Ledger

The drumbeat of “payments” reverberates throughout the interviews and comments that Brad Garlinghouse has made about XRP.

I agree with him – XRP is the best at payments among the digital assets and crypto-currencies currently in existence.  The performance metrics of the XRP Ledger’s native asset XRP make it easy to forget what sets the XRP Ledger apart for many fans of crypto-currency; its ability for any user to extend trust to another.

If you’re new to XRP, you may not even know about this feature!  Even though it was considered an incredible innovation in its day, the ability for anybody on the XRP Ledger to extend trust doesn’t get the publicity that it deserves.

New XRP Fans: Yes, You Can Issue Your Own Token

Before we get to the fun part, let’s start at the beginning.

This is Ryan Fugger’s creation.  If anybody tells you different, challenge them.  He was the one with the original idea, and he made the decision to hand this idea off to Chris Larsen and David Schwartz at some point in 2012.

We first have to look at the concept of trust.  Right now, there are a large number of global exchanges where you can purchase or trade XRP.  In order to operate, the exchange will typically create their own credit on the XRP Ledger.  These credits are known as IOUs, because that’s exactly what they are; a promise to pay the holder a specific value, whether it’s another currency, asset, or even a service.

If you trade XRP for these IOUs, you are essentially “trusting” that the issuer of the IOU is going to redeem them for the specified currency.

The XRP Ledger is known as a “credit network” by university researchers, because it involves the issuing of credit for any security other than its native asset, XRP. 1 The XRP Ledger gives participants the ability to issue their own credit – for whatever reason, to represent any token of value that they want to issue.  The process is simple, and Ripple wanted to make it that way; within an XRP wallet, the user merely selects a few options and then they can “send” an IOU to a recipient wallet if that wallet trusts them. 2

Nuts & Bolts Example Using World Exchange Wallet

Here is an example of how this works using the World Exchange online XRP wallet: 3

Step 1: Choose an acronym for the XRP Ledger.  In my example, I chose “HDR.”


Step 2: Indicate how many tokens you wish to issue, and their price pegged to XRP.


Step 3: Issue the token.


Step 4:  Click “here” button to allow sending and receiving of your token.  You’ll receive the following confirmation message:


And that’s it!  You’ve successfully issued your own token.

The wallet I used for this demonstration is an online XRP wallet named “”  It was created by a user on XRPChat named @pftq.  (Note that I don’t vouch for others’ code, so please use this and other wallets at your own risk)

In addition to his online wallet, this user authored an insightful blog on the topic of issuing credit, and how it’s much easier to issue a token on the XRP Ledger than on a smart contracts platform.  Here is the link to that blog entry:

He’s right:  It’s easy and convenient.

Family and Friends

What if your older parents and / or grandparents don’t want to go through the KYC procedures on an exchange, but they still want to participate in buying and selling XRP?
You could do it for them, and then issue to their wallets specific IOUs in accordance with how much you owe them, thereby shielding them from onerous KYC procedures if they’re just going to have you trade for them.  When they have your IOUs in their account, it becomes an irrevocable, cryptographic proof of how much actual money you owe them.


Small Players

Imagine that you run a social media site and wish to issue tokens for every 100 page views that a blog entry receives.  Using the tokens on XRP Ledger, the blog writer could get a share of the advertising revenue.  You’d issue them as necessary, and then whoever has them could send them to you for redemption.

Now imagine that you are the owner of a small coffee shop.  You issue “cookie tokens” for repeat customers after 10 purchases.  Each token could be exchanged at your store for a coffee treat, similar to a low-tech punch-card system.

Big Players

What if Amazon wishes to create redeemable gift certificates on the XRP Ledger? amazon_symbol

This would indeed be a sea-change in the retail industry.  Currently if you purchase an Amazon gift certificate, it’s tracked only in an internal ledger that Amazon controls.  Instead, these could be placed on the XRP Ledger as IOU tokens and traded like other assets.  Imagine trading an Amazon gift certificate for a gift certificate at Whole Foods?  If the gift certificates are issued on the XRP Ledger, it makes it entirely possible!

Really Big Players

What about other types of financial assets?  For those that are interested in the truly “big” numbers and possibilities, derivatives and other instruments are also trust-based and hence redeemable by issuing organizations.  This relationship lends itself to a tight integration with the XRP Ledger to track the securities’ ownership.

The market for derivatives is super-massive.  Trading in derivatives dwarfs all other markets in terms of dollar value, with some analysts estimating that it is more than 10 times the size of the total world GDP. 4  This would be a comparable trade volume to other very high-frequency use cases for the XRP Ledger.

Credit for the Credit Network

Whether it’s a token to show social trust, a formal IOU that represents a debt, or a digital asset that represents ownership of a complex financial instrument, the XRP Ledger is capable of supporting it with the ease and simplicity of sending a token of your choice to a recipient wallet.

Ripple has made a decentralized credit network easy to understand for anybody who can understand just what a handshake represents.



8 thoughts on “Tokens – Trust on the XRP Ledger”

  1. Hodor,reading all your output. THANKS it certainly makes sense to me and I have increased my holdings in XRP. Doing well thank you.
    Apart from the XRP price appreciation I am still at a loss as to how XRP make money. There is a finite supply and it’s being managed by the escrow plan I get that but I understand that once the banks have used it it is burned.
    So where is the income stream for XRP?
    I also realise there are many more applications for the use of XRP and my crystal ball says this will be bigger than the universe. So I am optimistic for sure.
    Please write about how you see their business model generating revenue.
    Thanks again and keep up the great info and effort you make.
    Most appreciated and keep the FUDERS honest. 😎👍


    1. Ripple (the company) gains revenue from several different sources, but much of their company’s value is centered around its XRP holdings.

      While they perform integration services and software delivery, they also make money as XRP is adopted.

      I do not have insight into their revenue streams from services, as they are a privately-held company. That being said, they’ve indicated some pieces of their XRP adoption strategy in different posts on various media. Here is one such post on XRP Chat:


  2. Thanks. Interesting write up. As a holder of XRP, this kind of info and analysis is very helpful.

    I have a question regarding XRP: Is it or will it be in the interest of Ripple (and its liners like banks, FIs, etc.) to have a digital asset/ token that is of high value? In other words, and just as an example, is it beneficial or better for Ripple and its clients for XRP to be trading at $100 as compared to $10?

    Thanks in advance.


  3. Very well written Hodor. I have somewhat of a deep understanding in derivatives trading and IOU, yes I fail to understand what’s to give any value to these XRP IOUs. Say my mom gave me $100 and I issued her an IOU for, say, 100 xrp (as this was the exchange rate at the time). I used the dollars to buy XRP or any other asset, and lost it all by bad trading – what is then giving any value to the IOUs in her hand, and how can she enforce or collect this debt?


    1. If you look at the core idea behind trust on the ledger, it was initially created to show that one individual can extend trust to another. What that translates to in the real world is somebody giving you a bank note, for example. Essentially they become indebted to you. This concept is known as a “credit network” among academics.

      In your scenario, what she does to collect is her own choice; the ledger merely documents the fact that there is a debt represented by the cryptographically-secure token.


  4. Hi Hodor,

    I must say that you are doing a great job on your blog. Great analysis with deep understanding of matter. I believe in XRP too, and I believe also that is a future.
    I am Forex trader and I can notice certain principles on crypto currency market,similar to the Forex but I can not understand such a connection with btc and xrp. Not all EUR couples are so closely connected like btc and xrp.They have the same charts,literally.The same candlesticks. I have the feeling that the same people are trading with both currency on one mouse click.

    Do you think it will split at one time ?
    Keep writing and thank you


    1. I think you are correct in that there has definitely been a strong connection between the two cryptocurrencies – XRP and BTC. However, lately, on various days, I’ve noticed price divergence. I guess as 2018 progresses, we might also see utility-driven demand for XRP pick up to measurable levels. That will be interesting to watch!


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